When confronted with the realities of power, however, Catherine saw very quickly that emancipation of the serfs would never be tolerated by the owners, whom she depended upon for support, and who would throw the country into disorder once they lost their own means of support. Peter had shortly before divorced his first wife, Eudoxia Lopukhina, who was sent off to a convent.

"Catherine I, Her Court and Courtiers." How did she end up on the Russian throne? Ulrich abdicated, and in September 1762 Catherine was crowned empress of Russia. Initially unconcerned about the rebellion, Catherine soon responded with massive force. 1.

Encyclopedia of Russian History. Omissions? Her difficult life, multiple childbirths, and heavy drinking after her husband’s death took a major toll on her health. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Meet extraordinary women who dared to bring gender equality and other issues to the forefront. 5. CATHERINE I (c. 1686 – 1727) Yekaterina Akexeyevna, born Martha Skavronska(ya), the second wife of Peter I and empress of Russia from February 8, 1725 to May 17, 1727.. Martha Skavronskaya's background, nationality, and original religious affiliation are still subject to debate. The marriage took place on August 21, 1745, with the bride (a new convert to Orthodox Christianity) now bearing the name Ekaterina, or Catherine. Catherine II (born Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst; 2 May 1729 – 17 November 1796 ), most commonly known as Catherine the Great, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796—the country's longest-ruling female leader. Thus, at the head of Russia stood an ambitious women who had never received a systematic education and was hardly able to sign her name on orders and official documents. Orphaned at the age of three, Marta Skowronska was raised by a Lutheran pastor in Marienburg (modern Alūksne, Latvia). © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Born in 1729, Sophie von Anhalt-Zerbst enjoyed numerous marital prospects due to her mother’s well-regarded bloodlines. There were unconfirmed rumors of a secret marriage in 1707, but only in 1711, prior to his departure for war against Turkey, did Peter make Catherine his consort. Frustrated in her attempts at reform, Catherine seized the pretext of war with Turkey in 1768 to change her policy; henceforth, emphasis would be placed above all on national grandeur.
(2000). When Catherine gave birth to a son, Paul, in 1754, gossips murmured that Saltykov—not Peter—had fathered him. Catherine herself gave credence to this rumor in her memoirs, going so far as to say that Empress Elizabeth had been complicit in permitting Catherine and Saltykov’s relationship. At that point, Russia encountered unforeseen difficulties. Peter found this out and executed Mons and exiled Matrena in 1724. (1672–1725), known as Peter the Great, tsar and emperor of Russia, 1682–1725. Elizabeth was born at Kolomenskoye, near Moscow, Russia, on 18 December 1709 ().Her parents were Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia and Catherine. However, once installed on the throne, the new king, who Catherine and others believed would be a mere puppet to Russian interests, began a series of reforms meant to strengthen his country’s independence.

When the conspiracy was uncovered in July 1762, Catherine moved quickly, gaining the support of the country’s most powerful military regiment and arranging for her husband’s arrest. A disciple of the English and French liberal philosophers, she saw very quickly that the reforms advocated by Montesquieu or Jean-Jacques Rousseau, which were difficult enough to put into practice in Europe, did not at all correspond to the realities of an anarchic and backward Russia.
She was considered to be an extremely compassionate person and had a calming effect on Peter. The principle of absolutism should be upheld.

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